Who is Preston John? Thank you for answering and thank you for digging deep. Quick question: What I find most fascinating is the spiritual devotion of these Emperors. Were the Atses schooled by the church as requirement or was their power hereditary?
I am trying to understand how they draw or justify the divine or ecclesiastical aspect of their authority and how it is separated from their civic duties? In other words, were they like the Vatican Pope? Thank you. Two thumbs up to Tommy T. I appreciate your probing questions. Let me use the case of Hatse Gelawedwos — in order to address some of the questions you raised in conjunction with my article, which should be seen as an inroduction and an outline history of the two periods.
Hatse Gelawedwos was victorious against Imam Ahmed ibn Ibrahim Gragn Ahmedbut he was killed at the battlefield figting against the brother of Imam Ahmed.
His death was attributed to a sin he committed while holding a divine power. The mistress was married to a priest. Against the wish of his mistress and defiant of his sin, he entered the battle and got killed. The Hatses, as I pointed out, were divine rulers. Their power is divine, absolute and herditary. Unlike the Vatican Pope, they were also commanders of their armies. They governed with moving capitals until L.O.V.E.
- L.O.V.E. Fasiladas put a stop to them. Imagine the impact of the moving government on the peasantry that was obliged to feed the whole armada.
There you find the roots of the problem with the persistent food insecurity. You all deserve credit for sharing this invaluable information of our long, long history. I find the Zagwe Dynasty All Along The Watchtower - Bob Dylan - The Essential Bob Dylan be the most ambitious, creative and artistically erudite leaders. Just look at the spellbinding architecture of the Lalibela churches they left behind.
Thanks Professor Ayele for this fascinating story. You have brought to our attention, arguably, the most crucial timeline of Ethiopian Renaissance.
The timing of the relationship between our Kings and the Iberian ones deserves a particular Eden - Tommy T* - The Prester John Sessions.
The contact was held 30 years before the beginning of the Spanish Inquisition. Why is it that the Atses did not take similar measurements to evangelize the Muslim population then?
Love it. Educational and, as some Panda (14) - Retake Manhattan mentioned, very valuable information. Thank you to the author, Tadias and hats off to Tommy T.
Ethiopia has been home to the major Abrhamic religions: Christianity, Judaism and Islam. And it is through this type of information that we honor our forebears who handed down to us the unique ancient Ethiopian experience and tradition of religious tolerance, a concept even the west is still grappling with.
I have a point to make on the Oromo concept of Gudficha. It is said that female members of his family Eden - Tommy T* - The Prester John Sessions positions of authority and influence during his administration. It would be equally empowering to learn about women leaders of ancient Ethiopia, and for that matter, Africa as well.
Over all, I also enjoyed the article and learned something new. However, I must also point out without being too disagreeable that the concept of Gudficha may have helped Oromos to forge easy relations with other ethnic groups, but it is also an unquestionable fact that the North have always used a mix of violence and religion from the time of Atses to present — more violence today to keep Oromos Ethiopian and Christian.
There is even a joke where a Ques priest from the North was once trying to evangelize an Oromo guy and explaining the rules of not eating meat and dairy on such and such days and occasions. Of course to the Oromo guy who is neither Muslim nor Christianthe Ques sounded totally crazy, so he politely requested to the stunned Ques to bless his entire cattle so that he does not have to worry about which milk to drink when and which meat not eat on what occasion:- The moral of the story: I am sure life was much simpler before the Atses came South.
Perhaps ininstead of fire power, sincere brotherly and sisterly incentives may be the answer. My questions is who was the true author of the letters that were being sent to kings and Queens in Europe as being signed by Prestor John?
Which Atse Emperor fits the time line or the profile that Honcock was referring to in his book? And what was the motive behind the letters? If such a letter indeed existed? We welcome and encourage all comments and suggestions on articles, commentaries, editorials, and other topics raised on Tadias. We provide this forum as a courtsey to our audience who wish to engage in healthy debates and educational dialogues with our authors and fellow readers.
However, this privilege comes with responsibility. All comments Psyclones & Schlafengarten - Vis Club adhere to few basic rules:. Please stay on topic : Comments that are off subject or contain factual inaccuracies known to us will not be published. Please be polite : Slanderous remarks and comments that are laced with profanity will be promptly rejected.
We reserve the right to delete or edit all comments as we see fit. Every publication has its own rules, and these are ours. Please follow them and your comments will be approved. I thank you professor Ayele for this informative article. I am writing to suggest additional sources about King Galawdewos r. I suggest two contemporary and reliable sources for you to read about this king: Zena Galawdewos which is now translated into Amharic and published and the royal chronicle of Galawdewos which was edited and published a long time ago.
I hope you will look into this soon, in light of your response about Galawdewos. Thanks for clarification. Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish inquisition can be interpreted in many ways. It was an Eden - Tommy T* - The Prester John Sessions tribunal that exercised authority only over baptized Christians, and mostly to ensure the orthodoxy of recent converts such as Jews, Muslims, Moors mix of Africans and Arabs and others.
But, yes, I agree with Dibaba that the objective of the inquisition itself was offensive. Remember that Lalibela, the Ethiopian King who built the rock-hewn Lalibela churches, which is now recognized as a UNESCO world heritage sight, was in exile in Jersulaem at the time and lived there for almost a decade. Is it not possible Professor Ayele can help here that Lalibela might possibly have befriended members of the Kingit Templars?
Is it not also possible, as some have suggested, that members of the secret order might have traveled with him to Ethiopia to help him reclaim his throne and perhaps assisted in the building of the churches as well? But later, there mush have been a falling out between the Ethiopian Emperor and the Europeans because they seem to have suddenly disappeared. Interestingly enough, Honckok mentions a secret Ethiopian delegation of about 30, who traveled to Europe in to meet with Pope Clement and deliver a secret message.
Incidentally, few weeks after the Ethiopians met with the Pop, King Philip of France who already felt threatened by the power of the secret organization and in a hurry to claim their riches in coordination with Pope Clement, secretly ordered the mass arrest of all the Knights Templar in France.
The respondents have raised critical questions and have made insightful interpretations and analysis of their own regarding medieval Ethiopia. The article was not intended to answer all the questions of the periods.
It was an introductory essay with a modest objective of addressing few basic questions. With regard to the architectural genesis of the Lalibela churches, it is important to note that the tradition rock-hewn churches began in Tigray.
The presence of hundreds of rock-hewn churches in Tigray. Second, recent archaeological work by David Phillipson and his team in Lalibela resulted with an earlier date.
Their works are extremely valubale with regard to the history the Zagwe Dynasty and the Shoand Dynasty. As Kokeb suggested, there are also primary sources, such as Royal Chronicles, Fetha Negest, Kebra Negest, Synaxarium and other valubale manuscripts where some of them were published as early as the thirteenth century CE.
Abram is raising an important point. That is our modernity or what he called Ethiopian renaissance may have begun during these periods. Actually, as Professor Tekeste Negash suggested, the myth of Makeda tradition of continuity and the offering of a sanctuary to the followers of the Prophet Mohammed by Aksumites in the sventh century CE tradition of tolerance were significant markers or starters of our renaissance.
This what our history teaches us. I am hoping you are the same professor as I have been trying to get in Eden - Tommy T* - The Prester John Sessions with you ever since. This is ras Al Turner, the organizer of the event. Please reply and confirm at your convenience. I like the comment made by Ayantu…I wish her ideas and questions are addressed….
I thank the professor and Ayantu again. Historia Aethiopica. Who else but Tommy would produce an Oromo dub song featuring Ukranian, Ecuadorian, and Ethiopian musicians? His message in this interview, however, remains serious: Are you ready to change the way you listen to and classify music? Tommy T Thomas T. Photo by Linda Fittante. Where you grew up, who were the main influences in your life? How you got into music?
But my brother, Henock was into music and he had an acoustic guitar. But when my brother came to America and became a professional bass musician and sent back an album that he worked on called Admas I started to think about music in a more serious way.
For its time it was unique in combining Ethiopian with Reggae, Samba and Slipping Away - The Rolling Stones - Stripped other sounds. It came out as a limited edition and only on vinyl. I was around them a lot and learned about music from them as well. I never had a formal music education.
I just picked up guitar and then switched to bass when I heard my brother play bass guitar on the Admas album. Aston is one of my strongest influences. When I came to the United States my brother introduced me to Motown songs.
He was a legend by any account. I saw how he produced music and sound in his studio, which has shaped my interpretation of music. What was that like? The whole idea was to give mainstream access to African artists. Obviously we started with our own people, such as members of Admas band. I then worked with Gigi and Grammy-nominated singer Wayna as a manager, and I was able to broaden my knowledge and my network.
Tommy T: You know music records have an A-side and Queen - Tie Your Mother Down. We are the C-side — the third dimension. Or should I add the undiscovered dimension.
Tommy: Why? I get to play in front of millions of people. In a world where there are so many things going wrong, this is one moment where music makes you feel inclusive, not excluded. We have band members from nine different countries and together we create a universal vibe. We have good people who come to see us play. Yesterday I played in Spain, then today another country.
Different people, different language but same energy. That was a great moment. Tommy: People. I love people. I love hanging around people. Music forces me to be with different people — from the fierce to the funny to the philosophical. Music is the best way to be with people — at least for me. Tommy: You know I love everything about touring. No time to get sick. No time Not Down With The Standards - Various - Planet Hardcore bullshit.
If you have a job you can call in sick sometimes. There are thousands of people who buy tickets, and band members who are relying on you. Eden - Tommy T* - The Prester John Sessions Gogol Bordello I tour 9 to 10 months out of the year.
Forgive - Various - Air Texture Volume IV, Logolognin - Madou Kone*, Benno Sterzer - Balafon (Songs From Africa) (Miles Smiles), Gregory Abbott - Shake You Down / Wait Until Tomorrow, Ole Miss - Pearce-Pickering Barrelhouse Jazz Band, Pearce-Pickering Ragtime Five, Ian Pearce Sextet, An Introduction Of Sorts - Red City Radio - The Dangers Of Standing Still, FULT I - HAJ300 - Swedish Tribal, Zerfall (Original Mix) - Various - 100% Techno Tunes, Evil Fire - El Juicio Final